Timbuktu population: https://www.britannica.com/place/Timbuktu-Mali

 

https://archive.org/stream/cihm_36715#page/n426/mode/1up

 

Swahili:

http://www.pbs.org/wonders/Episodes/Epi2/swahi_2.htm

Djenne Djenno:

https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/116

Benin City:

https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/mar/18/story-of-cities-5-benin-city-edo-nigeria-mighty-medieval-capital-lost-without-trace

Benin City Lighting Rods: Lightning rods:The Continuum Encyclopedia of Native Art: World view, Symbolism, and culture in Africa, Oceania, and Native North America. Page: 137