CLICK HERE for sources.

Thornton, John K.. Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500-1800 (Warfare and History) . Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. 

“Landlords and Strangers Ecology, Society, and Trade in Western Africa, 1000-1630” pg. 126-127)

“The Atlantic World, 1450-2000” pg, 22


“Warfare and diplomacy in pre colonial West Africa”

“Death and Attitudes to Death at the Time of Early European Expeditions to Africa” (15th Century)