According to legend the Premyslid Dynasty was founded by a ploughman named Premysl. He married the princess Libuse and bedame ruler. Premysl and Libuse gave birth to three sons but the first two sons died but the third one Nezamysl would survive and continue the dynasty. But this legend because sources for the early Premyslid dynasty are sketchy. According to other sources Duke Borivoj was the founder of the dynasty.
The head of the Premyslid dynasty was usually designated as a prince or duke until 1198 when Premysl Ottokar I turned Bohemi into an important kingdom within Holy Roman Empire. Under his reign, medieval Bohemia reached the hieght of its economic prosperity and political dominance.
By the second half of the thirteenth century the Premyslids were one of the most powerful dynasties in Central Europe and it saw the reign of one of its greatest kings Ottokar II and he succeds his father Wencelaus I. He started to expand his kingdom and gained a lot of territory but his cousin Bela IV of Hungary grew jealous of his success. Bela fought many battles with Ottokar but lost to him many times. Ottokar II’s kingdom grew larger as he conquered Prussia and Carinthia. Despite his successes he still was elected as Holy Roman Emperor because that honor went to Rudolph of Habsburg. Rudolph gained back lands that once belonged to Frederick II. He persuaded Ottokar to sign a treaty which states that he will surrender all of his lands exce for Bohemia and Moravia. Ottokar II tried to strengthen political stance with Rudolp by marrying his son to Rudolph’s daughter. Ottokar II still wasn’t satisfied so he tried to gain back the lands he lost by declaring war against Rudolph. Ottokar and Rudolph’s armies fought each other in the Battle of Marchield August 26 1278. Despite his prowess in battle Ottokar and his army were overwhelmed and Ottokar II died in battle. He was succeeded by his son Wenceslaus II who proved to be a capable ruler. In 1291 he acquired Poland but des his success he died in 1305. Wenceaus III inherited the Bohemian throne but was killed in 1306 while traveling to Poland. After his death the Premyslid dynasty was extinct and Bohemian throne would go to John of Luxembour.